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BLUE

There can be no doubt that Blue is the color of the craft lodge. The term Blue Lodge is one that seems to be a North American colloquialism and one MasonicDictionary.com wishes would become extinct. But Blue Lodge is preferred over Red Lodge as a description of Capitular Masonry.

- Source: MasonicDictionary.com


BLUE

This is the proper colour of the Antient degrees of Freemasonry, and is generally explained as being emblematic of friendship and charity, teaching us that in the mind of a Mason these virtues shall be co-exstensive with the blue vault of heaven.

- Source: Pocket Lexicon of Freemasonry


Articles On Blue On This Page


The Color Blue

Blue is the symbol of truth and universality, and we have seen how it was therefore much used by Divine command, and in the vestments of the Jewish priests. It is the color appropriate to the First Three Degrees, or Ancient Craft Masonry, and the curtains, cushions, etc. of a Lodge are therefore blue. This color naturally suggests the thoughts of the blue sky and the blue sea; of their vast extent, their profound depths, those of the sky being absolutely without limit; of their changelessness throughout the lapse of ages, though clouds may sometimes for a while obscure the sky, and the storms agitate the surface of the sea. There is much to engage the mind and much to affect the heart in the thought of the perfect stillness of the ocean depths, to which the power of the most fearful storms never reaches; and of the ever unbroken repose of the illimitable space beyond the clouds, where the orbs of heaven always shine in pure and serene majesty. Such thoughts carry away the mind from the world and its vicissitudes and cares to the better country. Nor is this all. The color that symbolizes truth and universality teaches us to maintain truth in our relations to God Himself and to our fellow man, and it teaches us that our charity ought to be extended to the entire human race. Truth in our relation to God is, in other words, sincerity and earnestness in religion, implying a continual cultivation of its graces, and a constant endeavor to discharge all its duties. Truth, in relation to our fellow-men, implies nor only the avoidance of all falsehood in speech, but of all that savors of deceit in our conduct, uprightness in all our dealings, a perfect and unimpeachable honesty, such that our own conscience may have nothing of which to accuse us, even in transactions the true character of which only God and ourselves can discern.

- Source: Wm. W. Vickers
The Canadian Craftsman, June 1898


BLUE

This is emphatically the color of Freemasonry. It is the appropriate tincture of the Ancient Craft Degrees. It is to the Freemason a symbol of universal friendship and benevolence, because, as it is the color of the vault of heaven, which embraces and covers the whole globe, we are thus reminded that in the breast of every brother these virtues should be equally as extensive. It is therefore the only color, except white, which should be used in a Master's Lodge for decorations. Among the religious institutions of the Jews, blue was an important color. The robe of the high priest's ephod, the ribbon for his breastplate, and for the plate of the miter, were to be blue. The people were directed to wear a ribbon of this color above the fringe of their garments; and it was the color of one of the veils of the tabernacle, where, Josephus says, it represented the element of air. The Hebrew word used on these occasions to designate the color blue or rather purple blue, is tekelet; and this word seems to have a singular reference to the symbolic character of the color, for it is derived from a root signifying perfection; now it is well known that, among the ancients, initiation into the mysteries and perfection were synonymous terms; and hence the appropriate color of the greatest of all the systems of initiation may well be designated by a word which also signifies perfection.

This color also held a prominent position in the symbolism of the Gentile nations of antiquity. Among the Druids, blue was the symbol of truth, and the candidate, in the initiation into the sacred rites of Druidism, was invested with a robe composed of the three colors, white, blue, and green.

The Egyptians esteemed blue as a sacred color, and the body of Amun, the principal god of their theogony, was painted light blue, to imitate, as Wilkinson remarks, "his peculiarly exalted and heavenly nature."

The ancient Babylonians clothed their idols in blue, as we learn from the prophet Jeremiah (x, 9). The Chinese, in their mystical philosophy, represented blue as the symbol of the Deity, because, being, as they say, compounded of black and red, this color is a fit representation of the obscure and brilliant, the male and female, or active and passive principles.

The Hindus assert that their god, Vishnu, was represented of a celestial or sky blue, thus indicating that wisdom emanating from God was m be symbolized by this color. Among the medieval Christians, blue was sometimes considered as an emblem of immortality, as red was of the Divine love. Portal says that blue was the symbol of perfection, hope, and constancy. "The color of the celebrated dome, azure," says Weale, in his treatise on Symbolic Colors, "was in divine language the symbol of eternal truth; in consecrated language, of immortality, and in profane language, of fidelity."

Besides the three degrees of Ancient Craft Freemasonry, of which blue is the appropriate color, this tincture is also to be found in several other degrees, especially of the Scottish Rite, where it bears various symbolic significations; all, however, more or less related to its original character as representing universal friendship and benevolence.

In the Degree of Grand Pontiff, the Nineteenth of the Scottish Rite, it is the predominating color, and is there said to be symbolic of the mildness, fidelity, and gentleness which ought to be the characteristics of every true and faithful brother.

In the Degree of Grand Master of all Symbolic Lodges, the blue and yellow, which are its appropriate colors, are said to refer to the appearance of Jehovah to Moses on Mount Sinai in clouds of azure and gold, and hence in this degree the color is rather a historical than a moral symbol.

The blue color of the tunic and apron, which constitutes a part of the investiture of a Prince of the Tabernacle, or Twenty-fourth Degree in the Scottish Rite, alludes to the whole symbolic character of the degree, whose teachings refer to our removal from this tabernacle of clay to "that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens." The blue in this degree is, therefore, a symbol of heaven, the seat of our celestial tabernacle.

Brothers John Heron Lepper and Philip Crossle contributed to Ars Quatuor Coronalorum (volume xxxvi, part 3, page 284), a discussion of Masonic Blue from which the following abstract has been made. Reference being first directed to other contributions to the subject in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum (xxii, 3; xxiii); and to the Transactions, Lodge of Research (1909-In, page 109), the authors state their belief that the Gold and Blue worn by the officers of the Grand Lodge of Ireland and the members of the Grand Master's Lodge, Dublin, are symbolical of the Compasses from the very inception of a Grand Lodge in Ireland, the symbolism being introduced there from England in or before 1725. After the first dozen years some variations were made in the established forms and the opinion is hazarded that one of these changes was from sky-blue to the dark Garter Blue for the ribbons and lining of the aprons then worn by the officers of the Grand Lodge of England, afterwards the Moderns.

On Saint John's Day in June, 1725, when the Earl of Rosse was installed Grand Master of Ireland, he was escorted to the King's Inns by "Six Lodges of Gentlemen Freemasons," the members of one "wore fine Badges full of Crosses and Squares, with this Motto, Spes mea in Deo est (My hope is in God), which was no doubt very significant, for the Master of it wore a Yellow Jacket, and Blue Britches." Brethren of the Grand Lodge still wear working aprons with yellow braid and yellow fringe with sky blue border on a plain white ground with no other ornament. These are probably syrnbolical of the compasses as in the following quotation from a spurious ritual published in the Dublin Intelligence, August 29, 1730:

After which I was clothed.

N.B. The clothing is putting on the Apron and Gloves.

Q. How was the Master clothed?

A. in a Yellow Jacket and Blue Pair of Breeches.

N B The Master is not otherwise Clothed than common. the Question and Answer are only emblematical, the, Yellow Jacket, the Compass, and the Blue Breeches, the Steel Points.

At a Masonic Fęte in the Theater Royal, Dublin, December 6, 1731, we find "The Ladies all wore yellow and Blue Ribbons on their Breasts, being the proper Colors of that Ancient and Right Worshipful Society."

From the first the Grand Lodge of Ireland issued Lodge Warrants bearing Yellow and Blue ribbons supporting the seal showing a hand and trowel, a custom continued until about 1775.

The Grand Lode of Ireland preserves a cancelled Warrant issued June 6, 1750, to erect a Lodge No. 209 in Dublin. On the margin is a colored drawing of the Master on his throne and he wears a yellow jacket and blue breeches-with a red cloak and cocked hat-all of the Georgian period. An old picture-said to be after Hogarth-in the Library of Grand Lodge of England shows a Freemason with a yellow waistcoat. Our late Brother W, Wonnacott, the Librarian, thought the color of this garment was no accident and is symbolical of the brass body of the Compasses.

Up to recent years the members of Nelson Lodge, No, 18, Newry, County Down, Ireland, wore blue coats and yellow waistcoats, both having brass buttons with the Lodge number thereon. The color of the breeches has not been preserved but no doubt it was intended to be the same as the coat.

Union Lodge, No. 23, in the same town, must have worn the same uniform, for there is still preserved a complete set of brass buttons for such a costume.

These two Lodges, 18 and 23, were formed in 1809 from an older Lodge, No. 933, Newry, warranted in 1803. But from the fact that in Newry there still works the oldest Masonic Lodge in Ulster, warranted in 1737 and also from the fact that. Warrant No. 16, originally, granted in l732 or 1733, was moved to and revived at Newry in 1766, there can be no question but that Masonic customs had a very strong foothold in that town.

That this custom was an old custom in Newry is also shown by the coat and vest which the late Brother Dr, F, C. Crossle had made for himself, he being intensely interested in Masonic lore, and having learned from the lips of many veteran Freemasons in Newry. that. this was the old and correct Masonic dress for festival occasions. It is true we cannot assume a general practice from a particular custom, as in the case of the Newry usage, nevertheless the latter is another link in the chain.

- Source: Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry


BLUE, THE SYMBOLISM OF

By Bro. Henry P. Jones, Tennessee

If we consider the importance that has been attached to colors throughout the ages, and the herald-like duty they have ever performed, we must inevitably reason that Masonry, the greatest and most universal of ancient institutions, must also have been launched upon its lengthening career, under a color, or colors, in harmonious keeping with its teaching. To ferret out this color, however, and discover its original symbolism, is, we fear, a task made impossible by the gloom of intervening centuries. And so, leaving the beginning, veiled, as it should be, in darkness and mystery, we must even acknowledge the decree of comparatively modern ruling and usage as authentic. But here, too, we are left partially in dobt. A color has been handed down to us, but the symbolism, if in truth there existed any, has gone so long unheeded, that it is lost in the impenetrable folds of the past. Thus are we forced, as a last resort, to apply the test of our own reason and imagination to our knowledge of fundamental Masonry, and accept the result as a possible solution.

"At the revival of 1717," says our learned Brother, Dr. Oliver, "it was directed that the symbolical clothing of a Master Mason was 'skull-cap and jacket yellow, and neither garments blue.' " The symbolism, however, of this "symbolical clothing," was probably known to a few only, and was never recorded. But the Doctor continues: "In 1730, it was regulated by Grand Lodge that the Grand Officers should 'wear white leather aprons with blue silk; and that the Masters and Wardens of particular Lodges may line their white leather aprons with white silk, and may hang their jewels at white ribbons about their necks.' " Of course we do not know how long Blue had been recognized as a Masonic color, but here perhaps, we have the first definite step toward its establishment as the ONE TRUE color; for, having been once permanently adopted by Grand Lodge, it would as a natural sequence, creep gradually into subordinate lodges, until it came to be looked on as the legitimate color of the Order. Thus, in brief, may we account for it. But, having the color, we cannot so easily determine its proper symbolism. And yet, methinks this should not be difficult, if we go about it thoughtfully.

Certainly, it is commonly known that Blue has in all ages been deemed an emblem of the abstract qualities, Truth, Secrecy, Sincerity, and Fidelity; but to us it should mean something more. Let us see. Studying closely the various figurative meanings that have been attached to the five fundamental, or prismatic colors, in the past, we find that, as a general rule, they may be reduced to these: green, the symbol of generative, or self-contained force, or the germ of life; youth, freshness: yellow, the symbol of the result of accumulation or long dulation; ripeness, or the full measure of resources, activity, or years; age; decay: blue, the symbol of mild, unresisting virtue; morality: purple, the symbol of royalty or sovereignty; the director or governor of physical force; wisdom; knowledge: red, the symbol of physical force or agressiveness. Taking these symbolisms of the five colors collectively, and considering them as a wnole, they may be said to represent to us the five primary essentials, necessary to the existence of a perfect human being, namely: the germ of life, the germ of death, moral initiative, mental initiative, and physical initiative. The five colors themselves, rightly blended into one, produce perfect white for it is a well known scientific fact, that when pure, or perfect white light is received into a proper body or a prism, the rays are broken, disintegrated, and applied in such a manner that there emanates from the prism in their stead, these five fundamental colors.

Let us pause a moment now, and collect the threads of our explanation into one; an easy task if they are all plainly before us. As pure light received into the proper body and correctly utilized, results in the colors, or symbols of the five essentials to a perfect man, so the True Light or Word of God, received into the heart and properly utilized, results in the harmonious working essentials themselves; the germ of life developing in fulness and perfectness, and bending gradually and fearlessly to the germ of death; moral initiative, opening to view unspotted petals, tinted with celestial hue; mental initiative, growing up in the midst of finite creation as a part of it, and thus adding to its beauty a form and texture common to no other work of the Supreme Architect; and physical initiative, developing naturally and unshackled at every point--the mountain stream rushing joyfuily along, with crystal depths unchoked by dams, unmurked by hand of man. Thus should Blue, our own suitable color, and the symbol in our illustration, of moral initiative, represent to us the perfect moral man--the result in truth, of a proper reception of the Great Light in the true heart.

We should not confine ourselves, however, to the narrow realms of pedantic Science, in our search for light.

"Blue: 'Tis the life of heaven,'"

Yea, the silent, spreading canopy that shelters all alike, 'neath mystic folds receding up through endless space; the end of all man's hopes and dreams--unmeasured home of unheard strains of wheeling spheres. A fit symbol indeed, of the universality of Masonry; of the mystic veil that curtains off our lives from all past and future Time; and finally, of "that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens," which we all hope at last to attain, for

"The cloudcapt Towers, the gorgeous Palaces, The solemn Temples, the great Globe itself, And all which it inherit, shall dissolve."

(If we venture to add a note to so excellent an article, it is in the hope of provoking further study of this interesting subject. The use and meaning of color in the Bible is a delightful theme, although, so far as we now recall, the late Dr. Delitzsch, of Leipzig, seems to have been almost the only one who treated colors in the Bible symbolically. In his "Iris," fortunately now in English dress, he treats the subject at some length. Also in "Chapters on Symbolism," by W. F. Shaw, there is a suggestive discussion of "The Symbolism of Color," (Part IV), from which we read:--"Blue is sometimes the color of the sea, and always the color of the sky by day, when free from cloud. As such it is symbolical of Heaven, and of the things of Heaven, Truth, Knowledge, Faith. Thus the Tabernacle which was made after the pattern of things in heaven, and was a figure of the true Tabernacle, the House not made with Hands, eternal in the heavens, had its hangings of blue and purple, and scarlet, and the loops of the curtains were blue. (Ex. 26:1, 4)" Blue had an important place in the attire of the High Priest of the Tabernacle, on his breastplate and ephod, the robe of which was blue, (Ex. 28:30- 39:22), reminding the wearer that he was a priest of the God of Truth (Psa. 31:6) and the God of knowledge (1 Sam. 2:3) and that it behooved his lips to keep knowledge (Mal. 2:7). "When Moses and Aaron and the elders went up into the Mount, it is said they saw the God of Israel, and there was under His feet, as it were, a paved work of sapphire stone (Ex. 24:10). Now the sapphire is a stone of a blue color." To which the author adds the words of Delitzsch: "Sapphire-blue is the color taken by that which is most heavenly, as it comes down on the earth, the color of the covenant between God and man. Blue passes almost universally as the color of fidelity. Even in Middle High German bla is symbolically equivalent to staete (steadfast), and staetekeit--steadfastness." (Iris, p. 28). So much by way of suggestion. Perhaps Swedenborg has something to teach us here, as in so many things, if some Brother will dig into that mine and reveal the ore.--The Editor.)

-Source: The Builder - August 1916


MASONIC BLUE

The inquirer who asks why the Ancient Craft Masonry is “blue” - why speak of Blue Lodge, Blue Degrees, wear aprons edged with blue, suspend jewel about the necks of officers with blue ribbons - is faced at once with two divergent schools of thought. One of these is the practical, hard-headed, founded-on-fact school of the Masonic historian and antiquary; the other is that which associates ideas with objects, colors, numbers, beasts, birds, natural phenomena, etc., as symbolism has been developed and followed throughout the history of mankind.

Historians both Masonic and secular agree that the square has been a symbol of rectitude, honesty, fair dealing, justice the world over for unknown ages. But the symbolist who reads much into the familiar square apron, with its triangular flap, is at once confronted with the undoubted fact that this form of apron is modern, not ancient. The invention of the square as a tool must have been coincident with the first appreciation of the right angle, and the advantages, in solidity and ease of construction, of the use of stones and timbers which were squared. Its Symbolism, therefore goes back to “time immemorial.” Masonic aprons used by operative masons were simple skins of any shape or no particular shape. With the change from operative to speculative, the apron became conventionaized, but only in comparatively recent times did it assume its present rectangular and triangular features. The symbolism read into its present shape will not fit, for instance, the aprons worn by George Washington, which had curved flaps and rounded corners.

Blue as the color for Ancient Craft Masonry is accounted for by two schools of thought on its origin. Both can adduce considerable evidence. One believes that the symbolism of the color, like that of the square, comes to us from “time immemorial” and that the color must have been adopted because of its meanings; the other demonstrates that blue as a Masonic color is not as old as the Mother Grand Lodge, and that it was adopted for other than symbolic reasons. Blue was a sacred color to the priests of Israel. The color is mentioned first in the Old Testament in Exodus XXV:3-4, in which the Lord Commands Moses to speak to the children of Israel: “And this is the offering which ye shall take of them; gold, and silver, and brass, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goat’s hair.”

Throughout Exodus and Numbers are many references to the color, and several are to be found in Chronicles, Esther, Jeremiah and Ezekiel. We read of the “fine twined linens,” “Make the ephod of Gold and Blue,” “bind the breastplates with a lace of blue,” “pomegranates of blue,” “an hanging for the tabernacle of blue,” “needlework of blue,” “a cloth wholly of blue, etc.

Perhaps the most interesting allusion is in Numbers XV:37-38-39-40:

“And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them fringes in the borders of their garments throughout their generations, and that they put upon the fringe of the borders a ribband of blue; And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the Lord, and do them; and that ye seek not after your own heart and your eyes, after which ye use to go a whoring; That ye may remember, and do all my commandments, and be holy unto your God.”

Mackey notes that the blue of the Old Testament is a translation of the Hebrew “tekelet” which is derived from a root signifying “perfection.” He develops the idea that the blue was anciently, and universally sacred as follows:

“Among the Druids, “blue” was the symbol of “truth” and the candidate, in the initiation into the sacred rights of Druidism, was invested with a robe composed of the colors, white, “blue” and green. “The Egyptians esteemed “blue” as a sacred color, and the body of Amun, the principal God of their theogony, was painted light “blue,” to imitate. as Wilkinson remarks, ‘His peculiarly exalted and heavenly nature.’

The ancient Babylonians clothed their idols in “blue,” as we learn from the prophet Jeremiah (x, 9). The Chinese, in their mystical philosophy, represented “blue” as the symbol of the Deity, because, being, as they say, composed of black and red, this color is a fit representation of the obscure and brilliant, the male and the female, or active and passive principles.

“The Hindus assert that their God, Vishnu, was represented by a celestial or sky “blue,” thus indicating that wisdom eminating from God was to be symbolized by this color.

“Among the medieval Christians, “blue” was sometimes considered as an emblem of immortality, as red was of the Divine Love. Portal says that “blue” was the symbol of perfection, hope and constancy. “The color of the celebrated dome, ‘azure,’ was in Divine language the symbol of eternal truth; in consecrated language, of immortality; and in profane for which Masons strive.”

Our ancient brethren met on hills and in vales, over which the blue vault of heaven is a ceiling; Jacob in his wisdom saw the ladder ascending from earth to heaven; the covering of a Lodge is the clouded canopy or starry decked heaven. These allusions seem to connote that blue, the color of the sky, is that of all celestial attributes for which Masons strive.

Man’s earliest forms of worship were of the sun and fire. The sun rose, traveled and set in a realm of blue; to associate the color with Deity was inevitable. Blue also is the color of the ocean, of mountain streams, of lakes, of good drinking water - that blue should also become emblematical of purity is equally natural.

In heraldry, blue or azure signifies chasity, loyalty and fidelity. In painting, the color is frequently used in an emblematical manner, as in depicting an angel’s robe and the robe of the Virgin Mary, to signify humility, fidelity and especially faith. It is the color of hope. It has been held to signify eternity and immortality; pale blue is especially associated with peace. Of forty-seven nations, twenty-seven have blue in their flags; all, doubtless with the same thought that Brother Wilbur D. Nesbit so beautifully expressed:

Your Flag and my Flag
And how it flies today
In your land and my land
And half a world away!
Rose-Red and Blood-Red
The stripes forever gleam;
Snow-white and Soul-white
The good forefathers’ dream;
“Sky-blue and true-blue
With stars to gleam aright -
The glorious guidon of the day
A shelter through the night.

There seem to be many grounds on which he can firmly stand who believes that Freemasonry adopted blue as the color of the three degrees with its ancient symbolism in mind. Yet it is to be remembered that Freemasonry as we know it was not formed overnight, by any one group of men, each of whom contributed some idea to its ritual, ceremonies, ancient usages and customs. No committee sat about a table to decide the question “what color shall we adopt by which the Ancient Craft shall forever more be distinguished?” It is possible, of course, that the ancient operative masons, from whose guilds and organizations modern Freemasonry came as a result of slow evolution, may have had an especial reverence for the color blue. As has been noted, blue has been associated from early times in ecclesiastical history with the Virgin Mary. The earliest document of Freemasonry, the Regius Poem (1390) has two lines: “Pray we now to God almyght And to hys moder, Mary brytht.”

Which certainly connotes a reverence of these ancient Freemasons for Mary the Mother, and may easily be considered ground for thinking that the early builders also revered her special color.

However that may be, it is obvious that the absence of any evidence is not negative evidence; it is commonplace of human experience that in the face of any positive evidence for an idea, in the absence of any evidence against it, the fact should be admitted.

All of which brings us to what we know of the earliest use of blue as a Masonic color, regardless of how much we may wish that our forefathers had adopted blue for the symbolism we are now content to read into the hue of heaven.

Two extracts from the minutes of the Grand Lodge of England (1717) are explicit upon the matter of color:

“Resolved, nem. con, that in private Lodges and Quarterly Communications and General Meetings, the Masters and Wardens do wear Jewells of Masonry hanging to a White Ribbon (vizt.) That the Master wear the square, the Senr. Warden the Levell, the Junr. Warden the Plumb-Rule.”

G.L. MINUTES, 24th JUNE, 1727.

“Dr. Desagulier taking notice of some irregularities in wearing the marks of Distinction which have been allowed by former Grand Lodges. “Proposed, that none but the Grand Master, his Deputy and Wardens shall wear their Jewels in Gold or Gilt pendant to blue ribbons about their necks and white leather Aprons lined with blue silk. “That all those who have served any of the three Grand Offices shall wear the like Aprons lined with Blue Silk in all Lodges and assemblies of Masons when they appear clothed.

“That all Masters and Wardens of Lodges may wear their Aproms lined with White Silk and their respective Jewels with plain white Ribbons but of no other color whatsoever.

“The Deputy Grand Master accordingly put the question whether the above regulation should be agreed to.

“And it was carried in the affirmative. Nemine Con.”

G.L. Minutes, 17th March, 1731.

But why did the Grand Lodge adopt, or permit, “blue” in 1731, when “white” was specified just four years previously?

Passing over the common but wholly coincidental “reason” - that many taverns where Masons met were distinguished by blue signs, such as the Blue Boar - the sanest theory seems to be that proposed by the noted Masonic scholar Fred J.W. Crowe. He wrote (1909-10 “Lodge of Research Transactions).

“The color of the Grand Lodge Officers clothing was adopted from the ribbon of the Most Noble Order of the Garter. The Grand Stewards from the second National Order - the Most Honourable Order of the Bath. The Scottish Grand Lodge undoubtedly copied the ribbon of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, and the Grand Lodge of Ireland anticipated the formation of the Most Illustrious Order of St. Patrick in 1788 by selecting light Blue - thus accidentally completing the series, although I would suggest that light Blue may in all probability have been chosen merely to mark a difference from the English Grand Lodge. In like manner I believe the light blue of our own private Lodge clothing was, by a natural sequence of ideas, adopted to contrast with the deeper colour of Grand Lodge attire, and not very long after the last-named became the rule.”

- Source: Short Talk Bulletin - Jul. 1934
Masonic Service Association of North America


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